A comprehensive survey of whale optimization algorithm: modifications and classification

Saboohi Mahmood, Narmeen Zakaria Bawany, Muhammad Rizwan Tanweer


Whale optimization algorithm (WOA) is an emerging nature-inspired, swarm-intelligence based algorithm to solve optimization problems more efficiently. This algorithm is based on the bubble-net hunting strategy of the humpback whales. It has gained immense popularity among researchers, typically, due to its simple nature, fast convergence, and having minimum parameters. In the recent past, it has been widely adopted in various fields including data mining, machine learning, wireless sensor networks, cloud computing, civil engineering, and power systems due to its optimal performance. The WOA has given competitive results in comparison to the state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. In this study, we aim to present a comprehensive survey of WOA consisting of more than eighty existing variants of WOA. More specifically, we intend to put forward key aspects of WOA variants with reference to modifications and applications. Further, we classify the most dominant variants of WOA in distinct categories based on modification area such as equation modification, parameter tuning or the problem space for which an algorithm has been specifically altered. We believe that this study will be beneficial for the community working on optimization problems and it can serve as a basis for understanding the modification and improvement process of an optimization algorithm.


Classification; Nature-inspired optimization; Review; Swarm-intelligence; Whale optimization algorithm

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v29.i2.pp899-910


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