Dual image watermarking based on NSST-LWT-DCT for color image

Siti Nur Avivah, Ferda Ernawan, Anis Farihan Mat Raffei


Advanced internet technology allows unauthorized individuals to modify and distribute digital images. Image watermarking is a popular solution for copyright protection and ensuring digital security. This research presents an embedding scheme with a set of conditions using non-subsampled Shearlet transform (NSST), lifting wavelet transform (LWT), and discrete cosine transform (DCT). Red and green channels are employed for the embedding process. The red channel is converted by NSST-LWT. The low-frequency area (LL) frequency is then split into small blocks of 8×8, each partition block is then transformed by DCT. The DCT coefficient of (3,4), (5,2), (5,3), (3,5), called matrix M1, and (2,5), (4,3), (6,2), (4,4), called matrix M2 are selected for singular value decomposition (SVD) process. With a set of conditions, the watermark bits are incorporated into those singular values. The green channel is cropped to get the center image before splitting into 4×4 pixels. The block components are then selected based on the least entropy value for the embedding regions. The selected blocks are then computed using LWT-SVD. A set of conditions for U(1,1) and U(2,1) are used to incorporate the watermark logo. The experimental findings reveal that the suggested scheme achieves high imperceptibility and resilience under various evaluating attacks with an average peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and correlation value (NC) values are up to 43.89 dB and 0.96, respectively.


Copyright protection; Image watermarking; Lifting wavelet transform; NSST; Watermark

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v35.i2.pp907-915


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The Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (IJEECS)
p-ISSN: 2502-4752, e-ISSN: 2502-4760
This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).

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