Unveiling deep learning powers: LSTM, BiLSTM, GRU, BiGRU, RNN comparison

Zakir Mujeeb Shaikh, Suguna Ramadass


Deep learning algorithms have revolutionized various fields by achieving remarkable results in time series analysis. Among the different architectures, recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have played a significant role in sequential data processing. This study presents a comprehensive comparison of prominent RNN variants: long short-term memory (LSTM), Bidirectional LSTM (BiLSTM), gated recurrent unit (GRU), bidirectional GRU (BiGRU), and RNN, to analyze their respective strengths and weaknesses of national stock exchange India (NSEI). The Python application developed for this research aims to evaluate and determine the most effective algorithm among the variants. To conduct the evaluation, data from the public domain covering the period from 1/1/2004 to 30/06/2023 is collected. The dataset considers significant events such as demonetization, market crashes, the COVID-19 pandemic, downturns in the automobile sector, and rises in unemployment. Stocks from various sectors including banking, automobile, oil and gas, metal, and Pharma are selected for analysis. Finally, the results reveal that algorithm performance varies across different stocks. Specifically, in certain cases, BiLSTM outperforms, while in others, both BiGRU and LSTM are surpassed. Notably, the overall performance of simple RNN is consistently the lowest across all stocks.


Bidirectional GRU; Bidirectional LSTM; Deep learning algorithms; Gated recurrent unit; Long short-term memory; Recurrent neural network

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v35.i1.pp263-273


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The Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (IJEECS)
p-ISSN: 2502-4752, e-ISSN: 2502-4760
This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).

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