Efficient number theoretic transform accelerator for CRYSTALS-Kyber

Toan Nguyen, Hoang Anh Pham, Hung Nguyen, Trang Hoang, Linh Tran


The national institute of standards and technology (NIST) has presented its draft of the module-lattice-based key-encapsulation mechanism standard (MLBKEMS), choosing cryptographic suite for algebraic lattices (CRYSTALS)- Kyber as the base encryption. Existing hardware implementations of modern cryptography will need to process the new standard efficiently. The primary process in CRYSTALS-Kyber key-encapsulation mechanism (KEM) is the number theoretic transform (NTT), which requires heavy computing power. This paper contributes an efficient hardware accelerator for NTT and inverse NTT (INTT) by CRYSTAL-Kyber parameters. The proposed design utilizes the K-RED algorithm for reducing polynomial multiplication. It also incorporates the BrentKung method for efficient modular addition and subtraction operation with an address generator to control the sequences of computation. On the Xilinx Artix 7 field programmable gate array (FPGA), our design achieves 262 MHz clock speed, utilizing only 1405 LUTs.


Accelerator; Cryptography; CRYSTALS-Kyber; FPGA; Hardware implementation; Number theoretic transform

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v33.i2.pp795-803


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The Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (IJEECS)
p-ISSN: 2502-4752, e-ISSN: 2502-4760
This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).

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