In-depth exploration of digital image watermarking with discrete cosine transform and discrete wavelet transform

Md. Apu Hosen, Shahadat Hoshen Moz, Sk. Shalauddin Kabir, Md. Nasim Adnan, Syed Md. Galib


Digital image watermarking is a crucial technique used to protect the integrity and ownership of digital images by embedding imperceptible watermarks into the image content. This review concentrates on the utilization of discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in digital image watermarking schemes. DCT, widely used in image compression like JPEG, is an attractive choice for watermarking, modifying DCT coefficients with minimal impact on image quality. On the other hand, DWT offers multiresolution representation, enabling better localization and robustness against attacks. DWT-based methods use wavelet coefficients to embed watermarks in specific frequency bands or image regions. The review examines the strengths and weaknesses of DCT and DWT in digital image watermarking, exploring algorithms and approaches proposed in the literature. It also addresses challenges like attacks, synchronization, and robustness to image processing. Additionally, a comparative analysis of DCT and DWT-based methods considers imperceptibility, robustness, capacity, and computational complexity. By offering valuable insights, this review aids researchers and practitioners in implementing secure and efficient digital image watermarking solutions.


Digital watermarking; Discrete cosine transformation; Discrete wavelet transformation; Robustness; Security

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The Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (IJEECS)
p-ISSN: 2502-4752, e-ISSN: 2502-4760
This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).

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