Model of intention and actual use mobile learning in higher education institutions in Iraq

Ayad Shihan Izkair, Muhammad Modi Lakulu


Mobile learning (ML) is now involved in the creation of teaching and learning methods for higher education. However, this involvement is varied among countries. The objective of this research was to examine the factors that impact students' intentions to use ML in Iraqi higher education institutions (HEIs). Building on unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) and information system success model (ISSM), a conceptual model was developed. The population of this study are users in Iraqi univeristies. Using a stratified random sampling, a total of 323 responses were collected to examine the proposed hypotheses. The findings showed that variables of UTAUT such as effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), performance expectancy (PE), facilitating conditions (FC) as well as variables of ISSM such as satisfaction along with perceived enjoyment and self efficacy affected positively the intention to use ML (ITUML) which in turn affected actual use (AU). Gender and experience moderated the effect of PE, EE, and SI on ITUML. A model of ITUML among users in Iraqi HEI was developed. Decision makers are advised to focus on certain variables to enhance the usage of ML in HEI.


Higher education; Intention to use; Iraq; Mobile learning; UTAUT

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