Inpatient WiFi-enabled medication dispenser for improving ward-based clinical pharmacy services

Khaleel Nawfeal Khaleel, Mazin N. Farhan, Mohammed G. Ayoub, Mohammed Sabah Jarjees


Medications are vital for patients and especially for those who are receiving treatment in hospitals. Providing medications for these people is essential to maintain their health. On the other hand, medication dispensing error is one of the most common challenges that face clinical pharmacists and medical staff. These errors frequently occurred due to poor medication systems and/or human factors (i.e. environmental conditions, fatigue or staff shortage). These factors may affect prescribing, transcribing, administration, dispensing and monitoring practices which can result in disability, severe harm and even death. Avoiding medication dispensing errors is the key motivation of this paper. Consequently, a biometric-based dispensing system has been designed and implemented. The system can be installed at hospital wards and used for delivering and monitoring inpatients doses. It consists of three parts; hardware, software and mechanical part. Three 4-phase stepper motors are used for controlling the mechanical part of this system. An optical fingerprint sensor is used which is compatible with the ESP32 low-power SoC for scanning patients’ fingerprints to recognize and store their data. The system directly updates its database whenever is used by the inpatients, so that nobody can get additional doses. This system is cost-effective, reliable and easy to use.


Biometric; Cloud data storage; Fingerprint; Medication dispenser; System-on-chip; Wi-Fi

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