Reconfigurable bandstop to allpass filter using defected ground structure in K-band for millimeter-wave communications

Adib Othman, Noor Azwan Shairi, Huda A. Majid, Zahriladha Zakaria, Imran Mohd Ibrahim, Mohd Haizal Jamaluddin, Anwar Faizd Osman


In this paper, a reconfigurable bandstop to allpass filters using Defected Ground Structure (DGS) in K-Band for millimeter-wave communications is proposed. Mathematical analysis of the DGS is discussed in this paper for the bandstop and allpass responses. The reconfigurable filter is performed by using an ideal switch with open circuit and short circuit conditions on DGS at several locations. Hence, two filter designs with different DGS are investigated for their performance in both simulation and measurement. As a result, the ideal switch at location S3 gives the best performance for both DGSs with a narrowband bandstop response and a wideband allpass response with insertion loss of less than 1 dB and return loss of more than 10 dB at the 26 GHz band. Hence, the proposed reconfigurable filter is suitable for millimeter-wave front-end communications.


Bandstop to allpass; Defected ground structure; Millimeter-wave; PIN diode; Reconfigurable filter

Full Text:



D. Choudhury, “5G wireless and millimeter wave technology evolution: An overview,” in 2015 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, May 2015, pp. 1–4, doi: 10.1109/MWSYM.2015.7167093.

Y. Cho, H. K. Kim, M. Nekovee, and H. S. Jo, “Coexistence of 5G with satellite services in the millimeter-wave band,” IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 163618–163636, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3022044.

M. M. Saleh, A. A. Abbas, and A. Hammoodi, “5G cognitive radio system design with new algorithm asynchronous spectrum sensing,” Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 2046–2054, Aug. 2021, doi: 10.11591/EEI.V10I4.2839.

O. H. Toma and M. Lopez-Benitez, “Cooperative Spectrum sensing: a new approach for minimum interference and maximum utilisation,” in 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ICC Workshops 2021 - Proceedings, Jun. 2021, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/ICCWorkshops50388.2021.9473716.

P. T. Tin, D. H. Ha, P. M. Quang, N. T. Binh, and N. L. Nhat, “Performance of multi-hop cognitive MIMO relaying networks with joint constraint of intercept probability and limited interference,” Telkomnika (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 44–50, Feb. 2021, doi: 10.12928/TELKOMNIKA.V19I1.18006.

S. S. Sarma and R. Hazra, “Interference mitigation methods for D2D communication in 5G network,” in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 1040, 2020, pp. 521–530.

D. Siafarikas, E. A. Alwan, and J. L. Volakis, “Interference mitigation for 5G millimeter-wave communications,” in 2018 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium and USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, APSURSI 2018 - Proceedings, Jul. 2018, pp. 391–392, doi: 10.1109/APUSNCURSINRSM.2018.8609455.

H. Islam, S. Das, T. Bose, and T. Ali, “Diode based reconfigurable microwave filters for cognitive radio applications: A review,” IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 185429–185444, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3030020.

A. El Fatimi, S. Bri, and A. Saadi, “Reconfigurable ultra wideband to narrowband antenna for cognitive radio applications using PIN diode,” Telkomnika (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 2807–2814, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.12928/TELKOMNIKA.v18i6.16242.

S. Narayana and Y. K. Singh, “Dual-band bandpass to bandstop switchable filter with independently tunable center frequency and bandwidth,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 2704–2709, Nov. 2021, doi: 10.1002/mop.32939.

S. Kingsly, M. Kanagasabai, M. G. N. Alsath, S. Subbaraj, S. K. Palaniswamy, and B. Bhuvaneswari, “Switchable Resonator based reconfigurable bandpass/bandstop microstrip filter,” International Journal of Electronics, vol. 108, no. 9, pp. 1610–1622, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.1080/00207217.2021.1908613.

M. K. Zahari, B. H. Ahmad, and N. A. Shairi, “Comparison of electronically switchable high Q Bandstop to bandpass filters based on allpass network,” in IEEE Symposium on Wireless Technology and Applications, ISWTA, Aug. 2021, vol. 2021-August, pp. 43–47, doi: 10.1109/ISWTA52208.2021.9587368.

Y. Zhu and Y. Dong, “Novel dual-band bandpass-to-bandstop filter using shunt PIN switches loaded on the transmission line,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, Aug. 2020, vol. 2020-August, pp. 924–927, doi: 10.1109/IMS30576.2020.9223857.

R. Chen, Q. Zhang, L. Zhou, and C. Chen, “Reconfigurable dual-band bandpass-to-bandstop filter using SAW resonators and lumped elements,” in 2021 IEEE MTT-S International Wireless Symposium, IWS 2021 - Proceedings, May 2021, pp. 1–3, doi: 10.1109/IWS52775.2021.9499428.

A. A. Zolkefli et al., “Switchable bandstop to allpass filter using cascaded transmission line SIW resonators in K-band,” Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 2617–2626, Oct. 2021, doi: 10.11591/eei.v10i5.2835.

D. Psychogiou, “Reconfigurable All-pass-to-bandstop acoustic-wave-lumped-element resonator filters,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 745–748, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1109/LMWC.2020.3004028.

A. A. Bakhit and P. W. Wong, “Switchable microwave band-stop to all pass filter using stepped impedance resonator,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 52, no. 52, pp. 99–115, 2013, doi: 10.2528/PIERB13033102.

W. Yang, M. D. Hickle, D. Psychogiou, and D. Peroulis, “L-band high-Q tunable quasi-absorptive bandstop-to-all-pass filter,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, Jun. 2017, pp. 271–273, doi: 10.1109/MWSYM.2017.8059094.

A. C. Guyette, E. J. Naglich, and S. Shin, “Switched allpass-to-bandstop absorptive filters with constant group delay,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 2590–2595, Aug. 2016, doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2016.2586054.

S. M. Shah et al., “A 2.45 ghz microstrip antenna with harmonics suppression capability by using defected ground structure,” Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 387–395, Feb. 2020, doi: 10.11591/eei.v9i1.1847.

W. A. Awan, S. I. Naqvi, A. H. Naqvi, S. M. Abbas, A. Zaidi, and N. Hussain, “Design and characterization of wideband printed antenna based on DGS for 28 GHz 5G applications,” Journal of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 177–183, Jul. 2021, doi: 10.26866/jees.2021.3.r.24.

N. Muchhal, A. Chakraborty, T. Agrawal, and S. Srivastava, “Miniaturized and Selective half-mode substrate integrated waveguide bandpass filter using hilbert fractal for Sub-6 GHz 5G applications,” IETE Journal of Research, pp. 1–8, Jan. 2022, doi: 10.1080/03772063.2021.2021816.

G. Soundarya and N. Gunavathi, “Compact dual-band SIW band pass filter using CSRR and DGS structure resonators,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters, vol. 101, pp. 79–87, 2021, doi: 10.2528/PIERL21091301.

V. Komarov, O. Barybin, and Y. V. Rassokhina, “Low-pass load matching network design using dumbbell-shaped DGS for high-efficiency microwave power amplifiers,” in 2019 International Conference on Information and Telecommunication Technologies and Radio Electronics, UkrMiCo 2019 - Proceedings, Sep. 2019, pp. 1–4, doi: 10.1109/UkrMiCo47782.2019.9165469.

A. Khare, S. Kharat, A. Rajapkar, S. M. Rathod, and M. Kulkarni, “Design of a compact wilkinson power divider using four asymmetric DGS for harmonic suppression,” in Proceedings of the 2019 TEQIP - III Sponsored International Conference on Microwave Integrated Circuits, Photonics and Wireless Networks, IMICPW 2019, May 2019, pp. 353–356, doi: 10.1109/IMICPW.2019.8933177.

A. Amir, M. Ashkan, S. Sadegh, and M. Khalil, “A Novel Compact Reconfigurable Defected Ground Structure Resonator on Microstrip Technology for Filter Applications,” in 21th Iranian Conference on Electric Engineering, 2013, pp. 1–5, [Online]. Available:

H. A. Mohamed, H. B. El-Shaarawy, E. A. F. Abdallah, and H. M. El-Hennawy, “Frequency-reconfigurable microstrip filter with dual-mode resonators using RF PIN diodes and DGS,” International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 661–669, Dec. 2015, doi: 10.1017/S1759078714001032.

A. Othman et al., “Switchable open loop square ring dgs in millimeter-wave SPDT discrete switch design,” in 2021 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics, APACE 2021, Dec. 2021, pp. 1–4, doi: 10.1109/APACE53143.2021.9760600.

A. Othman et al., “Millimeter-wave SPDT Discrete switch design with reconfigurable circle loaded dumbbell DGS,” in 2022 International Workshop on Antenna Technology (iWAT), May 2022, pp. 49–52, doi: 10.1109/iWAT54881.2022.9811052.

L. H. Weng, Y. C. Guo, X. W. Shi, and X. Q. Chen, “An overview on defected ground structure,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 7, pp. 173–189, 2008, doi: 10.2528/pierb08031401.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

shopify stats IJEECS visitor statistics