Major depressive disorder: early detection using deep learning and pupil diameter

Islam Ismail Mohamed, Mohamed Tarek El-Wakad, Khaled Abbas Shafie, Mohamed A. Aboamer, Nader A. Rahman Mohamed


Major depressive disorder stands as a highly prevalent mental disorder on a global scale. Detecting depression at its early stages holds paramount importance for effective treatment. However, due to the coexistence of depression with other conditions and the subjective nature of diagnosis, early identification poses a significant challenge. In recent times, machine learning techniques have emerged as valuable tools for the development of automated depression estimation systems, aiding in the diagnostic process. In this particular study, a deep learning approach utilizing pupil diameter was employed to distinguish between individuals diagnosed with depression and those who are considered mentally healthy. Pupillometric recordings were collected from a total of 58 individuals, comprising 29 healthy individuals and 29 individuals diagnosed with depression. Pupil size was recorded every 4 ms. The performance of three pretrained convolutional neural networks (GoogLeNet, SqueezeNet, and AlexNet) was evaluated for depression classification using the pupil size data. The highest accuracy of 98.28% was obtained with AlexNet. This finding highlights the potential of utilizing pupil diameter as a reliable indicator for objectively measuring depression.


Convolutional neural networks; Depression early detection; Machine learning techniques; Major depressive disorder; Pupillometric recordings

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The Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (IJEECS)
p-ISSN: 2502-4752, e-ISSN: 2502-4760
This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).

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