Dzongkha to English translation using the neural machine translation approach

Karma Wangchuk, Subalalitha Chinnaudayar Navaneethakrishnan, Yeshi Jamtsho, Yeshi Wangchuk


In this era of technology, a communication barrier is a thing of the past. With each passing day, different types of language-based applications are being launched. There are 109 official languages Google has translated to date. However, the Dzongkha translation has not been studied. The purpose of this paper was to study Dzongkha to English translation. The parallel corpus was collected from the Dzongkha development commission of Bhutan. The dataset consisted of 53018 sentence pairs. Unique words in Dzongkha and English were 13,393 and 12,506 respectively. Different neural machine translation models were implemented. The experimental results show that the bleu score of Seq2Seq models followed a fluctuating trend. However, the bleu score of the transformer model increases gradually. It was observed that the transformer outperformed the Seq2Seq models. The highest accuracy and the lowest training loss obtained were 84.46% and 0.014858 respectively with a bleu score of 64.89.


Dzongkha translation; Encoder decoder; Gated recurrent units; Neural machine translation; Transformer

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

The Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (IJEECS)
p-ISSN: 2502-4752, e-ISSN: 2502-4760
This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).

shopify stats IJEECS visitor statistics