An evaluation of nature-inspired optimization algorithms and machine learning classifiers for electricity fraud prediction

Ami Shamril Kamaruddin, Mohd Fikri Hadrawi, Yap Bee Wah, Sharifah Aliman


This study evaluated the nature-inspired optimization algorithms to improve classification involving imbalanced class problems. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) and grey wolf optimizer (GWO) were used to adaptively balance the distribution and then four supervised machine learning classifiers artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), extreme gradient-boosted tree (XGBoost), and random forest (RF) were applied to maximize the classification performance for electricity fraud prediction. The imbalance data was balanced using random undersampling (RUS) and two nature-inspired algorithm techniques (PSO and GWO). Results showed that for the data balanced using random undersampling, ANN (Sentest = 50.31%), and XGBoost (Sentest = 66.32%) has better sensitivity than SVM (Sentest = 23.61%), while RF exhibits overfitting (Sentrain = 100%, Sentest = 71.25%). The classification performance of RF model hybrid with PSO improved tremendously (AccTest = 96.98%, Sentest = 94.87%, Spectest = 99.16%, Pretest = 99.14%, F1 Score = 96.96%, and area under the curve (AUC) = 0.989). This was closely followed by hybrid of XGBoost with PSO. Moreover, RF and XGBoost hybrid with GWO also showed an improvement and promising results. This study has showed that nature-inspired optimization algorithms (PSO and GWO) are effective methods in addressing imbalanced dataset.


Artificial neural network; Electricity fraud; Extreme gradient-boosted tree; Grey wolf optimizer; Imbalance class; Particle swarm optimization; Support vector machine

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Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (IJEECS)
p-ISSN: 2502-4752, e-ISSN: 2502-4760
This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).

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