A survey on automatic engagement recognition methods: online and traditional classroom

Ajitha Sukumaran, Arun Manoharan


Student engagement in a learning environment is directly related to students’ perception and involvement of the educational activities in the class, along with their physical and mental health. This paper presents an extensive survey of the various automatic engagement detection approaches and algorithms based on computer vision, physiological and neurological signals analysis-based methods. The computer vision-based techniques depend on the traits captured by image sensors such as facial expressions, gesture and posture analysis, and gaze direction. The physiological and neurological signal based approach depends on the sensor data, like heart rate (HR), electroencephalogram (EEG), blood pressure (BP), and galvanic skin response (GSR). A brief analysis of the available datasets for Engagement Recognition and its features are also summarized. This study highlights a few commercially available wearables which provides the physiological signals that helps in student’s attentivity recognition. Our study reveal that the accuracy of engagement recognition system will increase if we increase the number of modalities used. In this survey, we intend to support the upcoming researchers as well as tutors of smart education set up by providing an overview of existing or proposed approaches of automatic engagement detection techniques in different scenarios.


Computer-vision; Facial expressions; Gaze direction; Gesture and posture; Neurological; Physiological

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v30.i2.pp1178-1191


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