A comparative analysis of image copy-move forgery detection algorithms based on hand and machine-crafted features

Ismail Taha Ahmed, Baraa Tareq Hammad, Norziana Jamil


Digital image forgery (DIF) is the act of deliberate alteration of an image to change the details transmitted by it. The manipulation may either add, delete or alter any of the image features or contents, without leaving any hint of the change induced. In general, copy-move forgery, also referred to as replication, is the most common of the various kinds of passive image forgery techniques. In the copy-move forgery, the basic process is copy/paste from one area to another in the same image. Over the past few decades various image copy-move forgery detection (IC-MFDs) surveys have been existed. However, these surveys are not covered for both IC-MFD algorithms based hand-crafted features and IC-MFDs algorithms based machine-crafted features. Therefore, The paper presented a comparative analysis of IC-MFDs by collect various types of IC-MFDs and group them rely on their features used. Two groups, i.e. IC-MFDs based hand-crafted features and IC-MFDs based machine-crafted features. IC-MFD algorithms based hand-crafted features are the algorithms that detect the faked image depending on manual feature extraction while IC-MFD algorithms based machine-crafted features are the algorithms that detect the faked image automatically from image. Our hope that this presented analysis will to keep up-to-date the researchers in the field of IC-MFD.


Digital Image forgery; Image copy-move forgery detection algorithms; Hand-Crafted Features; Machine-Crafted Features; Deep leaning methods

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v22.i2.pp1177-1190


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