Mobile communication (2G, 3G & 4G) and future interest of 5G in Pakistan: a review

Muhammad Saqib Iqbal, Zulhasni Abdul Rahim, Syed Aamer Hussain, Norulhusna Ahmad, Hazilah Mad Kaidi, Robiah Ahmad, Rudzidatul Akmam Dziyauddin


The use of mobile communication is growing radically with every passing year. The new reality is the fifth generation (5G) of mobile communication technology. 5G requires expensive infrastructural adjustment and upgradation. Currently, Pakistan has one of the most significant numbers of biometrically verified mobile users. However, at the same time, the country lags incredibly in the field of mobile internet adoption, with just half of the mobile device owners avail broadband subscription. It is a viable market with a large segment yet to be tapped. With the advancing progression in Pakistan towards the internet of things (IoT) connectivity, i.e., solar-powered home solutions, smart city projects, and on-board diagnostics (OBD), the urgency for speed, bandwidth and reliability are on the rise. In this paper, Pakistan's prevalent mobile communication networks, i.e., second, third and fourth generation (2G, 3G and 4G), were analyzed and examined in light of the country's demographics and challenges. The future of 5G in Pakistan was also discussed. The study revealed that non-infrastructural barriers influence the low adoption rate, which is the main reason behind the spectrum utilization gap, i.e., the use of 3G, and the 4G spectrum is minimal.


Mobile Adoption; IoT; 5G; Mobile communication

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