Enhancing load frequency control of multi-area multi-sources power system including conventional and renewable energy units with nonlinearities

Mohamed Abdul Raouf Shafei, Ahmed Nabil Abd Alzaher, Doaa Khalil Ibrahim


The foremost aims the Load Frequency Control (LFC) is to maintain the frequency at nominal value and minimize the unscheduled tie line power flow between different control areas. The penetration of renewable energy sources into the grid is a recent challenge to the power system operators due to their different modelling rather than conventional units. In this paper, enhancing load frequency control of multi-area multi-sources power system including renewable units system with nonlinearities is proposed using a new application of proportional–integral–derivative controller with proportional controller in the inner feedback loop, which is called as PID-P controller. To investigate the performance of the proposed controller, a thermal with reheater, hydro, wind and diesel power generation units with physical constraints such as governor dead band, generation rate constraint, time delay and boiler dynamics are considered. The proposed controller parameters are optimized using different heuristic optimization techniques such: Linearized Biogeography-Based Optimization technique, Biogeography-Based Optimization technique and Genetic Algorithm. The ability of the system to handle the large variation in load conditions, time delay, participation factors, and system parameters has been verified comprehensively.


Area control error (ACE); Governor Dead Band (GDB); Generation Rate Constraint (GRC); Load frequency control (LFC); PID-P controller; Integral time multiplied absolute error (ITAE)

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v19.i1.pp108-118


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