Fuzzy Dstar-Lite Routing Method for Energy-Efficient Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

Imad Alshawi


Sensor devices, in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), are usually equipped with low-capacity batteries and scattered on areas that cannot be reached in most of the cases to recharge or replace these sensors. The available battery energy in the sensor nodes is barely sufficient to transmit a limited quantity of data packets. In this regard, most of the works are designed aiming at achieving high energy efficiency. Due to multiple-hop data transmission and many to one traffic connection, the Imbalanced Energy Depletion (IED) is an immanent issue in WSNs. Accordingly, this paper suggests an energy-efficient routing protocol called Fuzzy Dstar-lite to produce an optimal pathway data routing for Heterogeneous WSNs (HWSNs). This protocol can also reuse the product path to keep the energy consumption fairly distributed over the nodes of a network. Interestingly, the proposed protocol is demonstrated to be more efficient in decreasing the transmission delay and balancing power consumption when compared with other protocols, i.e. chessboard clustering (CC), PEGASIS, and LEACH. The comparison also showed the proposed protocol has been increased the network lifetime approximately 15%, 40%, and 50% compare with CC, PEGASIS, and LEACH, respectively.


Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks; Network lifetime;Clustering partition; Dstar-lite algorithm;Fuzzy logic


K. Akkaya and M. Younis, "A survey on routing protocols for wireless sensor networks," Ad hoc networks, vol. 3, pp. 325-349, 2005.

N. Primeau, R. Falcon, R. Abielmona, and E. M. Petriu, "A review of computational intelligence techniques in wireless sensor and actuator networks," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 20, pp. 2822-2854, 2018.

J. Plata-Chaves, A. Bertrand, M. Moonen, S. Theodoridis, and A. M. Zoubir, "Heterogeneous and multitask wireless sensor networks—Algorithms, applications, and challenges," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, vol. 11, pp. 450-465, 2017.

A. S. Rostami, M. Badkoobe, F. Mohanna, A. A. R. Hosseinabadi, and A. K. Sangaiah, "Survey on clustering in heterogeneous and homogeneous wireless sensor networks," The Journal of Supercomputing, vol. 74, pp. 277-323, 2018.

P. G. V. Naranjo, M. Shojafar, H. Mostafaei, Z. Pooranian, and E. Baccarelli, "P-SEP: A prolong stable election routing algorithm for energy-limited heterogeneous fog-supported wireless sensor networks," The Journal of Supercomputing, vol. 73, pp. 733-755, 2017.

D. Sharma, A. Ojha, and A. P. Bhondekar, "Heterogeneity consideration in wireless sensor networks routing algorithms: a review," The Journal of Supercomputing, vol. 75, pp. 2341-2394, 2019.

I. AlShawi, L. Yan, W. Pan, and B. Luo, "Fuzzy chessboard clustering and artificial bee colony routing method for energy‐efficient heterogeneous wireless sensor networks," International Journal of Communication Systems, vol. 27, pp. 3581-3599, 2014.

I. S. AlShawi, L. Yan, W. Pan, and B. Luo, "Lifetime enhancement in wireless sensor networks using fuzzy approach and A-star algorithm," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 12, pp. 310-318, 2012.

I. S. Alshawi and I. O. Alalewi, "Lifetime Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks Using FDstar-Lite Routing Algorithm," International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, vol. 14, p. 46, 2016.

Y. Sun and S. Halgamuge, "Minimum-cost heterogeneous node placement in wireless sensor networks," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 14847-14858, 2019.

H. El Alami and A. Najid, "ECH: An Enhanced Clustering Hierarchy Approach to Maximize Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 107142-107153, 2019.

W. Zhang, L. Li, G. Han, and L. Zhang, "E2HRC: an energy-efficient heterogeneous ring clustering routing protocol for wireless sensor networks," IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 1702-1713, 2017.

W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, "Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks," in Proceedings of the 33rd annual Hawaii international conference on system sciences, 2000, p. 10 pp. vol. 2.

O. Younis and S. Fahmy, "HEED: a hybrid, energy-efficient, distributed clustering approach for ad hoc sensor networks," IEEE Transactions on mobile computing, pp. 366-379, 2004.

Z. Zhang, M. Ma, and Y. Yang, "Energy-efficient multihop polling in clusters of two-layered heterogeneous sensor networks," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 57, pp. 231-245, 2008.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, J.-L. Chen, D.-J. Deng, S.-B. Wang, and S.-Y. Jhong, "Lifetime enhancement of dynamic heterogeneous wireless sensor networks with energy-harvesting sensors," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 22, pp. 931-942, 2017.

J. Zhang and J. Chen, "An adaptive clustering algorithm for dynamic heterogeneous wireless sensor networks," Wireless Networks, vol. 25, pp. 455-470, 2019.

S. Pandey and V. Anand, "Load-Balanced Clustering Scheme with Sink Mobility for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks," National Academy science letters, vol. 40, pp. 335-341, 2017.

S. Ghafoor, M. H. Rehmani, S. Cho, and S.-H. Park, "An efficient trajectory design for mobile sink in a wireless sensor network," Computers & Electrical Engineering, vol. 40, pp. 2089-2100, 2014.

M. Pandey, L. K. Vishwakarma, and A. Bhagat, "An Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Increasing Lifespan of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks," in International Conference on Next Generation Computing Technologies, 2017, pp. 263-277.

S. Dutt, S. Agrawal, and R. Vig, "Cluster-head restricted energy efficient protocol (CREEP) for routing in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks," Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 100, pp. 1477-1497, 2018.

D. Sharma and A. P. Bhondekar, "Traffic and energy aware routing for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks," IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 22, pp. 1608-1611, 2018.

N. Wang and Z. Hong, "An Energy-Efficient Topology Control Algorithm for Earth Building Monitoring Using Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Access, 2019.

Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, S. Ning, J. Gao, and Y. Liu, "Energy-Efficient Multilevel Heterogeneous Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 55873-55884, 2019.

N. Madhavi and M. Madheswaran, "Enhanced lifetime of heterogeneous wireless sensor network using stable election protocol with region-based energy-conscious sink movement," The Journal of Supercomputing, pp. 1-17, 2019.

R. V. Kulkarni, A. Forster, and G. K. Venayagamoorthy, "Computational intelligence in wireless sensor networks: A survey," IEEE communications surveys & tutorials, vol. 13, pp. 68-96, 2010.

I. S. Alshawi, "Balancing Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Artificial Bee Colony Routing Protocol," International Journal of Management & Information Technology, vol. 7, pp. 1018-1032, 2013.

R. M. Al-Kiyumi, C. H. Foh, S. Vural, P. Chatzimisios, and R. Tafazolli, "Fuzzy logic-based routing algorithm for lifetime enhancement in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks," IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking, vol. 2, pp. 517-532, 2018.

M. Mirzaie and S. M. Mazinani, "MACHFL-FT: a fuzzy logic based energy-efficient protocol to cluster heterogeneous nodes in wireless sensor networks," Wireless Networks, pp. 1-13, 2018.

S. Koenig and M. Likhachev, "Fast replanning for navigation in unknown terrain," IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 21, pp. 354-363, 2005.

K.-Y. Cai and L. Zhang, "Fuzzy reasoning as a control problem," IEEE Transactions on fuzzy systems, vol. 16, pp. 600-614, 2008.

X. Du and Y. Xiao, "Energy efficient Chessboard Clustering and routing in heterogeneous sensor networks," IJWMC, vol. 1, pp. 121-130, 2006.

S. Lindsey, C. Raghavendra, and K. M. Sivalingam, "Data gathering algorithms in sensor networks using energy metrics," IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, pp. 924-935, 2002.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v19.i2.pp%25p
Total views : 29 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

shopify stats IJEECS visitor statistics