Rain attenuation distribution for satellite microwave links application in Tanzania

Promota Haule Linga, Hashim Uledi Iddi, Mussa Kissaka


Rain rate and Rain Attenuation predictions are important in radio system operating at Ku and Ka bands as they affect telecommunication systems performance. To adequately estimate rain-induced attenuation and fading, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recommends use of rainfall data collected using 1-minute integration time. For Tanzania, no rainfall data with 1-minute integration time is available either through measurements or conversion from rainfall data with longer integration time. In this paper the rain attenuation is predicted for seven locations in the coastal area of Tanzania. The 1- minute rainfall rate is determined by Chebil’s model using long-term measurements from Tanzania Metrological Agency (TMA) collected for a period of forty years, results obtained are used to estimate rain attenuations. By using the International Telecommunication Union-Recommendation (ITU-R) model, rain attenuation is predicted at horizontal polarization at Ku and Ka band. The results show that Unguja has the highest average annual rainfall accumulation with rain attenuation as high as ~53.22dB for Ka band and ~15.14dB for Ku band making the difference of about 38.08 between the two frequency bands. On the other hand, Kibaha which has the lowest average annual rainfall accumulation along the coast has rain attenuation of ~47.27dB for Ka and ~13.41dB for Ku bands, making the difference of 33.86dB between the frequency bands. Results obtained from this study can be useful in designing earth-satellite microwave links in the coastal area of Tanzania.


rain rate· satellite links· rain attenuation· Ku and Ka bands

Full Text:




A. I. Sakir Hossain, “Estimation of Rain Attenuation at EHF bands for Earth-to-Satellite Links in Bangladesh,” Int. Conf. Electr. Comput. Commun. Eng., pp. 589–593, 2017.

S. J. Malinga, P. a Owolawi, and T. J. O. Afullo, “Estimation of Rain Attenuation at C , Ka , Ku and V Bands for Satellite Links in South Africa,” Proc. PIERS Taipei, March 25-28, 2013, pp. 948–958, 2013.

T. S. Ibiyemi, M. O. Ajewole, J. S. Ojo, and O. O. Obiyemi, “Rain rate and rain attenuation prediction with experimental rain attenuation efforts in south-western Nigeria,” 2012 20th Telecommun. Forum, TELFOR 2012 - Proc., no. 1, pp. 327–329, 2012.

T. V Omotosho, O. O. Obiyemi, J. S. Mandeep, M. Abdullah, and S. A. Akinwumi, “Review of rain attenuation measurements on earth -space links in nigeria 2015,” Proceeding 2015 Int. Conf. Sp. Sci. Commun., pp. 0–4, 2015.

R. E. Okoola, “A diagnostic study of the eastern Africa monsoon circulation during the Northern Hemisphere spring season,” Int. J. Climatol., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 143–168, 1999.

G. Ononiwu, S. Ozuomba, and C. Kalu, “Determination of the Dominant Fading and the Effective Fading for the Rain Zones in the Itu-R P.838-3 Recommendation,” Eur. J. Math. Comput. Sci., vol. 2, no. 2, 2015.

H. Sakir, “Rain Attenuation Prediction for Terrestrial Microwave Link in Bangladesh,” J. Electr. Electron. Eng., 2014.

S. Selamat, A. Syafiah, M. Marzuki, A. T. Azlan, A. Naemat, and K. Khalil, “60-min to 1-min Rainfall Rate Conversion Using East Malaysia Data,” no. 3, pp. 1–5, 2014.

M. O. Fashuyi, P. A. Owolawi, and T. J. Afullo, “Rainfall Rate Modeling for LOS Radio Systems in South Africa,” vol. 97, no. March, pp. 74–81, 2006.

J. S. Ojo, M. O. Ajewole, and L. D. Emiliani, “One-minute rain-rate contour maps for microwave-communication-system planning in a tropical country: Nigeria,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 82–89, 2009.

C. T. Mulangu, P. A. Owolawi, T. J. O. Afullo, and S. Member, “Rainfall Rate Distribution for LOS Radio Systems in Botswana,” no. 3.

F. D. Diba, T. J. Afullo, and A. A. Alonge, “Rainfall Rate and Attenuation Performance Analysis at Microwave and Millmeter Bands for the Design of Terrestrial Line-of-Sight Radio Links in Ethiopia,” vol. 107, no. September, pp. 177–186, 2016.

D. Sumbiri, T. J. O. Afullo, and A. Alonge, “Rain Attenuation Prediction for Terrestrial Links at Microwave and Millimeter Bands over Rwanda,” pp. 8–11, 2016.

S. Shrestha and D. Choi, “Proposed One-Minute Rain Rate Conversion Method for Microwave Applications in Korea,” vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 153–162, 2016.

A. F. Ismail, W. Hashim, K. Abdullah, and N. A. Malik, “Empirical conversion of rainfall rate distribution for various integration times in Malaysia,” 2011 IEEE Int. RF Microw. Conf. RFM 2011 - Proc., no. December, pp. 270–273, 2011.

F. Abiola, R. Mohd-mokhtar, and T. Victor, “Analysis of Cumulative Distribution Function of 2-year Rainfall Measurements in Ogbomoso , Nigeria,” no. February, pp. 171–179, 2012.

P. Owolawi, “Derivation of One-minute Rain Rate from Five-minute Equivalent for the Calculation of Rain Attenuation in South Africa,” PIERS Online, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 524–535, 2011.

F. Moupfouma and L. Martin, “Modelling of the rainfall rate cumulative distribution for the design of satellite and terrestrial communication systems,” Int. J. Satell. Commun., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 105–115, 1995.

J. Chebil and T. A. Rahman, “Development of 1 Min Rain Rate Contour Maps for Microwave Application in Malaysia Peninsula,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 20, pp. 1772–1774, 1999.

P. L. Rice and N. R. Holmberg, “Cumulative Time Statistics of Surface-Point Rainfall Rates,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1131–1136, 1973.

P. Series, “Characteristics of precipitation for propagation modelling P Series Radiowave propagation,” vol. 7, 2017.

G. R. Rimven, K. S. Paulson, and T. Bellerby, “Estimating One-Minute Rain Rate Distributions in the Tropics From TRMM Satellite Data ( October 2017 ),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Obs. Remote Sens., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 3660–3667, 2018.

A. Y. Abdulrahman, T. B. A. Rahman, S. K. B. A. Rahim, and M. Rafi Ul Islam, “A New Rain Attenuation Conversion Technique for Tropical Regions,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B, vol. 26, no. September, pp. 53–67, 2010.

R. Itu-r, “RECOMMENDATION ITU-R P.838-3 Specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods,” pp. 1–8, 2005.

ITU-R, “Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of Earth-space telecommunication systems,” Recomm. ITU-R P.618-8, vol. 12, pp. 1–24, 2015.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v17.i2.pp982-987
Total views : 303 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

shopify stats IJEECS visitor statistics