New symmetric key cipher capable of digraph to single letter conversion utilizing binary system

Najdavan Abduljawad Kako, Haval Tariq Sadeeq, Araz Rajab Abrahim


In this paper, a new Playfair cipher built on bits level symmetric key cryptographic was proposed for the purpose of converting pairs of letters (digraphs) into single letters. The proposed algorithm is capable to overcome many of the shortcoming and vulnerabilities that exist in the current classical version of Playfair algorithm. The Playfair cipher is exceedingly complex than a classical substitution cipher, but still simple to hack using automated tactics. It is famous as a digraph cipher because two letters are exchanged by other two letters. This destroys any solo letter occurrence statistics, but the digraph statistics still unaffected (frequencies of two letters). Unluckily letter pairs have a flatter distribution than the one letter frequencies, so this intricacy matters for solving the code using pen and paper procedures. The suggested encryption process is conducted as follows; letters are first arranged in a spiral manner in Polybius square, afterwards, each pair will be replaced utilizing before-after technique if we are arranging pairs horizontally and down-up technique (vertically). The former process produces pairs of Plaintext that will be converted to binary bit stream then will be divided over blocks with stable sizes. Bits of these blocks are taken from pairs then fit them into square matrix of suitable order to put the concept of row-wise and revers row-wise matrix. Bits of this matrix are split into 2x2 square matrixes. The sub-matrixes are formed 8 bits. Here the XNOR operation is taken into consideration for bitwise operation to generate the keys for decryption and produce the cipher-text.


ASCII code; Cryptography; Digraph; Playfair cipher; Symmetric cipher; XNOR

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